The present review highlights the development and relevance of various advanced nanocarrier systems in the field of nanomedicine for delivering drugs, contrast agents and antibodies to different sites in the body. Wherever appropriate, emphasis on targeting to tumor site is discussed to support the concepts. Several multifunctional nanoparticles developed recently and possessing unique characteristics are also discussed. The scientific contributions, technological gaps and promising opportunities presented by advanced and sophisticated but hypothetical nanodevices of future, known as ‘medical nanorobots’ are also described that are designed for superior targeting efficiency, controlled drug release, optimum dosing and wide range of other functional capabilities.

The treatment of neurodegenerative issue remains an enormous test due to the limited access of iotas over the blood cerebrum obstruction, especially immense nanoparticles, for instance, peptides and
proteins. Subsequently, at most, somewhat dimension of a nanomedicine that is coordinated fundamentally will accomplish the central tactile framework in its dynamic shape. Non-invasive techniques, for instance, nanostructured protein movement transporters and intranasal association, give off an impression of being the most reassuring systems for the treatment of unlimited contaminations, which require whole deal intercessions. These philosophies are both target-specific nanoparticles and prepared to rapidly avoid the blood-mind obstruction by methods for polymeric micelles or nanogels.



The increasing demand for nanoparticles with well-defined uniform properties applied in various technical fields is nowadays limited by available fabrication techniques. The presented work is based on the microfluidic system, which greatly increases the effectiveness of nanoparticles production and characterization, decreases the unwanted by-products, as well as saves time compared to standard wet chemical batch procedures. Nanoparticles prepared using microfluidics platforms are designed for the biomedical application. Among the most important parameters of nanoparticles belong their hydrodynamic diameter, particle size distribution, surface properties and morphology. The main aim of this work is to use microfluidics in the synthesis of nanoparticles with high control over the reaction and process parameters compared to standard wet chemical batch procedures. A single droplet of dispersed phase formed inside the microfluidic chip represents a reaction vessel for nanoparticle synthesis where all reactants are effectively mixed. The surface of the nanoparticles is modified with a specific antibody IgG-M75 and an adhesion to a specific target, a trans-membrane protein over-expressed in a wide variety of tumor cells, carbonic anhydrase IX is tested inside a perfusion system. In this work, we employed CFD simulation of two-phase flow in order to design a microfluidic chip and study governing physical parameters and their influence on droplet formation process and mixing efficiency. Results of nanoparticle synthesis in the microfluidic system and their surface modification will be presented and discussed.



(Nanowerk Spotlight) Exploiting graphene's exceptional electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties for practical devices requires fabrication techniques that allow the direct manipulation of graphene on micro- and macroscopic scales. Finding the ideal technique to achieve the desired graphene patterning remains a major challenge.
One manufacturing route that researchers have been exploring with increased intensity is inkjet printing where liquid-phase graphene dispersions are used to print conductive thin films (read more: "Inkjet printing of graphene for flexible electronics"). Inkjet printing, however, doesn't help much when trying to build three-dimensional (3D) graphene structures.
This is where 3D-printing comes in. Applying 3D printing concepts to nanotechnology could bring similar advantages to nanofabrication – speed, less waste, economic viability – than it is expected to bring to manufacturing technologies (read more: "Nanotechnology and 3D-printing").

Tissue engineering (TE) is an interdisciplinary field integrating engineering, material science and medical biology that aims to develop biological substitutes to repair, replace, retain, or enhance tissue and organ-level functions. Current TE methods face obstacles including a lack of appropriate biomaterials, ineffective cell growth and a lack of techniques for capturing appropriate physiological architectures as well as unstable and insufficient production of growth factors to stimulate cell communication and proper response. In addition, the inability to control cellular functions and their various properties (biological, mechanical, electrochemical and others) and issues of biomolecular detection and biosensors, all add to the current limitations in this field. Nanoparticles are at the forefront of nanotechnology and their distinctive size-dependent properties have shown promise in overcoming many of the obstacles faced by TE today. Despite tremendous progress in the use of nanoparticles over the last 2 decades, the full potential of the applications of nanoparticles in solving TE problems has yet to be realized. This review presents an overview of the diverse applications of various types of nanoparticles in TE applications and challenges that need to be overcome for nanotechnology to reach its full potential.

Nanotechnology cancer treatments destroy cancer tumors with minimal damage to healthy tissue and organs, as well as the detection and elimination of cancer cells before they form tumors. Nanotechnology holds extraordinary growth for cancer therapy, diagnostics, and imaging, but bridging the translational gap presents a complex challenge. Most nanomedicine studies are concentrated in cancer. Due to the presence of leaky vasculature and impaired lymphatic drainage in solid tumors, Nanoparticles selectively accumulate in the tumor via the mechanism of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Therefore, nanoparticles are uniquely suitable for delivering diagnostic and/or imaging agents, chemotherapeutics, oligonucleotides and immune regulators to improve the therapeutic index of these compounds. Most efforts to enhance cancer treatment through nanotechnology are at the research or development stage. However there are many universities and companies around the world working in this area.

Nanoscience and Nanoengineering is an international peer-reviewed journal that publishes original and high-quality research papers in all areas of nanoscience and nanoengineering. As an important academic exchange platform, scientists and researchers can know the most up-to-date academic trends and seek valuable primary sources for reference.

Emerging materials is a multifaceted topic dealing with the discovery and designing of new materials. Emerging materials and nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field of science and engineering incorporating wide range of natural and man-made materials that relates the structure, synthesis, properties, characterization, performance and material processing. The engineering of materials has advancement in healthcare industries, medical device, electronics and photonics, energy industries, batteries, fuel cells, transportation, and nanotechnology. It aims at developing materials at the Nano, micro and macro scales and involves several subjects such as biomaterials, structural materials, chemical and electrochemical materials science, computational materials science, electrochemical materials. The advances in materials leads to new revolutions in every discipline of engineering. Material scientist and engineers can develop new materials with enhanced performance by modifying the surface properties. Emerging technologies are those technical innovations which represent progressive developments within a field for competitive advantage. List of currently emerging technologies, which contains some of the most prominent ongoing developments, advances, and Materials Science and Nanotechnology Innovations are: Graphene, Fullerene, Conductive Polymers, Metamaterials, Nanolithography Nanomaterials: carbon nanotubes, soft lithography, Super alloy, aerogel, aero graphite, Lithium-ion batteries, etc.

The field of drug and gene delivery involves development and delivery of drugs, genes, and gene products that ultimately alter protein expression and function of the cells, tissues, and living organisms.
Important areas in this growing field include development of delivery vehicles such as plasmids, nanoparticles, viruses, liposomes, peptide/protein complexes, and biomaterial scaffolds, as well as studies of drug and gene transport, delivery strategies, delivery barriers, and immune response to delivery.
Duke BME is actively involved in understanding and developing new strategies for drug and gene delivery aimed at therapies for cancer, infectious and cardiovascular disease, muscle disease, gastrointestinal disease, and others.


The Global Nano Pharmaceutical Industry report gives a comprehensive account of the Global Nano Pharmaceutical market. Details such as the size, key players, segmentation, SWOT analysis, most influential trends, and business environment of the market will be mentioned in this session.The session features an up-to-date data on key companies’ product details, revenue figures, and sales. Furthermore, the details also gives the Global Nano Pharmaceutical market revenue and its forecasts. The business model strategies of the key firms in the Nano Pharmaceutical market are also included. Key strengths, weaknesses, and threats shaping the leading players in the market have also been included. Nanotechnology, the science of very small materials, is poised to have a big impact in pharmaceutical packaging. Basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities appear in development of pharmaceutical Packaging(or pharma) in terms of enhancement of plastic materials’ barriers; incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging and sensing and signaling of relevant information.



 
Biopharmaceutics is well-defined as the study of factors influencing the rate and amount of drug that reaches the systemic circulation and the use of this information to optimize the therapeutic efficacy of the drug products. Biologic Drugs are genetically arisen from a living organism, such as a virus, protein, to maintain the body’s natural response to infections and diseases. 

Nanorobotics refers to nanotechnology an engineering discipline for designing and building nanorobots. These devices range from 0.1-10 micrometers and are made up of nano scale or molecular components. Nano robots can be used in different application areas such as medicine and space technology.

There are vast possibilities for graphene in medicine. One of the most critical applications is in cancer treatments. It has been suggested that functionalized nano-sized graphene can be used as a drug carrier for in vitro intracellular delivery of anticancer chemotherapy drugs. So far, nano-graphene with a biocompatible polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating has been used in effective ablation of tumors in mouse models.

In addition to this, a new microfluidic chip based on graphene oxide being developed can arrest tumor cells from blood and support their growth for further analysis. Once completed, this device could be used for cancer diagnosis as well as treatment options that don't require biopsies, avoiding discomfort for patients and the risk of infection after a biopsy. The basic biological mechanisms by which cancer cells metastasize or spread to distant organs could also be studied/determined using this innovative device.

The Global Nano Pharmaceutical Industry report gives a comprehensive account of the Global Nano Pharmaceutical market. Details such as the size, key players, segmentation, SWOT analysis, most influential trends, and business environment of the market will be mentioned in this session.The session features an up-to-date data on key companies’ product details, revenue figures, and sales. Furthermore, the details also gives the Global Nano Pharmaceutical market revenue and its forecasts. The business model strategies of the key firms in the Nano Pharmaceutical market are also included. Key strengths, weaknesses, and threats shaping the leading players in the market have also been included. Nanotechnology, the science of very small materials, is poised to have a big impact in pharmaceutical packaging. Basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities appear in development of pharmaceutical Packaging(or pharma) in terms of enhancement of plastic materials’ barriers; incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging and sensing and signaling of relevant information.

Nano ethics is the study ethical and social implications of nanotechnologies. It is an emerging but controversial field. Nano ethics is a debatable field. As the research is increasing on Nano medicine, there are certain regulations to increase their efficacy and address the associated safety issues. Other issues in Nano ethics include areas like research ethics, environment, global equity, economics, politics, national security, education, life extension and space exploration.

Nanoelectronics and Microsystems depend on the utilization of nanotechnology in the field of hardware and electronic parts. Nanoelectronics and nanotechnology are broadly utilized in all utilization of present day life. Life Safety, Healthcare, Transportation, Energy and Telecommunications and registering are the real fields profiting by the development of Nano electronic applications. Most recent authority adventures around 18 in devices adventures and 22 in material are in method, a yearly spending arrangement of $20,000 million is been upheld to Nanotechnology associations.

Nanodevices, the quickest moving segment of the general market, the Nanotech research involves in smart sensors and smart delivery systems, Magnetic Nanodevices, Nano-biosensors, Nano switches, Optical biosensors, and biologically inspired gadgets are predicted to transport at a excellent 34%CAGR. Nano-biosensors for 78.8% the phase Nano switches & Optical biosensors are anticipated to develop to $52.7 billion via 2019 and register a healthy 20.7% CAGR. Nanosensors will better hit upon the onset of sicknesses along with cancer or coronary heart ailment, and Nanomarkets expects the marketplace for biomedical Nanosensors to attain approximately $800 million in 2019. Biologically inspired devices

DNA nanotechnology is the design and manufacture of artificial nucleic acid structures for technological uses. In this field, nucleic acids are used as non-biological engineering materials for nanotechnology rather than as the carriers of genetic information in living cells. Researchers in the field have created static structures such as two- and three-dimensional crystal lattices, nanotubes, polyhedra, and arbitrary shapes, and functional devices such as molecular machines and DNA computers. The field is beginning to be used as a tool to solve basic science problems in structural biology and biophysics, including applications in X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins to determine structures. Potential applications in molecular scale electronics and nanomedicine are also being investigated.

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